Female Urethral Carcinoma

Metastatic cancer lymph nodes symptoms,


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    Tema plagiatului este tot mai mult discutată în ultima vreme. Apariția unor programe performante de căutare și identificare a similitudinilor între texte [ Since its introduction in the early s, sentinel lymph node biopsy SLNB is regarded as the standard treatment for patients with clinically negative axillary lymph nodes LNs on initial presentation.

    On the other hand, performing complete ALND in case of a positive SLNB is controversial, recent data from randomized controlled studies suggesting that, in metastatic cancer lymph nodes symptoms cases, the tumor biology has a greater impact on the adjuvant treatment decision than metastatic cancer lymph nodes symptoms completion of an ALND.

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    Metastatic cancer lymph nodes symptoms aim of this review is to ascertain whether axillary LN surgery has survival benefits in women with early breast cancer and SLN involvement, either micro-metastatic or macro-metastatic. Moreover, it tries to assess the value of SLN biopsy before and after primary systemic chemotherapy and its role in the staging of the axilla in locally recurrent breast cancer.

    Materials and method.

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    The analysis was restricted to retrospective studies and randomized controlled trials focusing on survival benefits in terms overall OS or disease-free survival DFS. There is increasing evidence metastatic cancer lymph nodes symptoms indicates that ALND can be avoided in a specific group of patients with early breast cancer, even though metastatic cancer lymph nodes symptoms SLNB is positive.

    A correlation between the clinico-pathological features of the breast cancer and the probability of residual disease in the axilla, could allow the selection of cases in which ALND can be omitted.

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    In the context of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, it is not yet established if positive SLNs could be converted to negative SLNs after chemotherapy as the rate of false-negative results is still high. Keywords: sentinel lymph node, breast cancer, biopsy, axillary dissection.

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