Diagnosticarea precoce a cancerului este importanta pentru salvarea vieţii

Hpv virus and rectal cancer, Cancerul - de ce se îmbolnăvesc oamenii de cancer ?

Background 1. Incidence Anal canal cancer is a relatively rare tumor, representing approximately 1. It is approximately 20 to 30 times rarer than colon cancer, but its annual incidence is increasing, reaching up to cases, with a female predominance 2.

There is an important geographic variation regarding its incidence, as well as histopathological type. The mainstay of the treatment is represented by chemo-radiotherapy, radical surgery being reserved to residual tumor or recurrences.

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  • Cancerul de canal anal - aspecte legate de diagnostic și tratament
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  • Importanta diagnosticarii precoce a cancerului |Anadolu
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Table 1; AJCC staging for anal cancer 2. Histopathology Depending on the lining epithelium, anal canal is divided into three regions: colorectal zone: located proximally and containg columnar epithelium; transitional zone: spread over a distance that varies between 0 and 12 mm that contains a pseudostratified type of epithelium resembling the urothelial one. A transformation zone is helmintica accepted in uterine cancer.

Cancerul - de ce se îmbolnăvesc oamenii de cancer ?

This region of metaplasia is extremely susceptible to HPV action 4 ; squamous zone: contains a non-keratinized epithelium, without hpv virus and rectal cancer follicles.

Leiomyosarcomas, lymphomas and small cell carcinomas similar in terms of evolution and prognosis to lung small cell carcinomasundifferentiated carcinoma or anal GIST - only 17 cases described in literature up to 7 - have also been reported.

Concerning anal margin neoplasia, these are represented by: Bowen disease in situ squamous-cell carcinoma ; invasive squamous-cell carcinoma; Paget disease; basal cell carcinoma: an extremely rare tumor, approximately 20 hpv virus and rectal cancer having been reported in 20 years 28that is of good prognostic.

The treatment consists in ample local resection or rectal amputation in case of sphincter invasion. TNM staging Anal cancer staging is based on tumor dimension, lymph node status and presence or absence of hpv virus and rectal cancer metastases. The risk of lymph node metastases is correlated with tumor size, invasion and grading.

hpv virus and rectal cancer

Risk factors Benign perianal pathology - perianal fissures and fistulas determine a chronic local inflammation that can lead to genetic alterations and have been incriminated as being etiologic factors. However, recent studies did not show a significant correlation between this pathology and the development of anal carcinoma 8. Sexual activity - according to a study lead by Hpv virus and rectal cancer, patients with anal cancer had genital papillomatosis, type II HSV and Chlamydia trachomatis infections in their medical history.

In the case of male patients, homosexuality, bisexuality, history of genital papilomatosis or gonorrhea have been associated to a higher risk of anal cancer 9. Another study, published inadds to the risk factors, for females: history of gonorrhea, uterine cervix dysplasia, more than 10 sexual partners, anal sexual intercourse; for male patients:  syphilis is another risk factor HPV infection - it is the widest spread sexually transmitted infection in Europe Anal HPV infection can be clinically inapparent or it may manifest as condyloma.

Of all HPV subtypes, subtype 16 is the most frequently incriminated as carcinogen.

The benefits are certain in some cases: life years gained for those with curable disease, avoidance of morbidity, reassurance that the disease is at a very early stage, avoiding expenses of treatment for advanced cancers and extra years of productivity. But screening tests also have disadvantages, so a balanced decision must be made, with the help of clinical randomized trials.

Viral transmission is not influenced by the use of condoms as it is localized at the base of the penis and scrotum. Cigarette smoking - foot wart traduccion study conducted in the early s highlighted a relative risk of 1. Carcinogenesis associated to cigarette smoking can be linked to an anti-androgenic effect of tobacco.

Cancerul - de ce se îmbolnăvesc oamenii de cancer ?

HIV infection - some studies showed an increase in anal canal cancer in seropositive patients. The severity and length of HPV infection are inversely proportional correlated to CD4 lymphocyte number.

Immunocompromised patients, either due to HIV infection or to post-transplantation status or chemotherapy, have an increased risk of HPV infection and progression to squamous cell carcinoma Anatomy Surgical anal canal spreads from ano-rectal ring 2 cm above the dentate line to the external anal orifice. Anal cancer must be distinguished from anal margin neoplasia that originates from the skin that presents perianal hair.

Some authors consider a 5 cm distance from the external anal orifice as the lateral limit The correct classification of perianal neoplasia hpv virus and rectal cancer the two mentioned categories is extremely important as those of anal margin are of better prognosis. Altogether, an erroneous classification could overestimate the role of radio-chemotherapy Pectinate line represents an extremely important landmark for the vascularization and lymph life cycle of enterobius vermicularis with diagram drainage.

Thus, above this line, venous drainage is to the portal circulation, by way of inferior mesenteric vein and below venous blood drains into systemic circulation through pudendal and hypogastric veins. Above the pectinate line lymphatics drain into the inferior mesenteric, but also to hypogastric and obturatory lymph nodes, while below pectinate line-especially to inguinal lymph nodes, but also hpv virus and rectal cancer femoral ones Due to the resemblance to benign perianal pathology, the diagnosis is too often delayed.

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Clinical examination consists in the inspection of perianal skin, anal margin, rectal examination and anoscopy and should indicate tumor localization above or below the pectinate line or its pertaining to anal margin. Bilateral inguinal region palpation is mandatory due to the lymphatic drainage to those lymphatic groups. Echo-endoscopy points our eventual loco-regional lymphadenopathies and gynecologic examination can indicate the coexistence of a uterine cervix lesion. The diagnostic of certainty is based on histopathologic examination.

Bioptic samples can be easily obtained with the patient in gynecological position; however, colonoscopy with exploration up to the cecum is obligatory to exclude eventual synchronous lesions. As with other paraclinical investigations, a CT examination of the hpv virus and rectal cancer, abdomen and pelvis or an MRI is recommended to point out possible secondary tumors.

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Untill the s, standard treatment consisted in abdominoperineal rectal amputation. For patients having small lesions, a large local excision has been proposed, accompanied however by disappointing results, excepting patients with a smaller than 2 cm anal margin cancer Abdominoperineal rectal amputation is the standard salvage therapy for patients who develop local recurrences.

Tumor invasion into neighboring organs is not a contraindication of resection, provided a R0 resection is achieved.

Medic specialist Oncologie medicală Cancerul - majoritatea ne-am izbit de acest cuvânt, fie că l-am auzit sau vazut la ştiri, ne-a spus o cunoştinţă despre el, fie că am citit pe internet, despre această boală grea şi meschină, care nu face nicio diferenţă între oameni atunci când îi loveşte. Termeni ca tumoră, neoplazie, neoplasm, malignitate, sunt folosiţi ca sinonime pentru a denumi cancerul. Din nefericire, această maladie poartă cu ea conotaţii şi încărcături emoţionale negative în orice context ar fi ea întâlnită. La momentul actual al dezvoltării şi cercetării ştiinţifice, nu există certitudinea cauzei apariţiei acestei boli, excepţie fiind cancerul pulmonar, a cărui cauză este strâns legată de cea a consumului de ţigarete şi unele tipuri de cancer de col uterin, sau unele tipuri de cancere aparţinând capului şi gâtului, în care infecţia cu anumite tulpini de virus HPV este necesară, dar nu suficientă, pentru a favoriza apariţia acestora.

Hpv virus and rectal cancer fact has lead to the use of rotated or advanced musculocutaneous flaps to ameliorate the healing process.

Provided the hpv virus and rectal cancer disease is controlled, isolated liver or lung metastases have indications for surgical resection. Due to significant morbidity and the relatively low impact on survival, prophylactic inguinal lymphadenectomy is not recommended Inguinal lymphadenectomy is indicated for patients with voluminous lymphatic blocks or to those with an obvious lymphadenopathy after chemo-radiotherapy Some authors recommend for synchronous lymphadenopathies inguinal lymphadenectomy with chemo- and radiotherapy following the healing of the wound.

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For metachronous lymphadenopathies, the treatment consists of lymphadenectomy followed by radiotherapy. The complications of the intervention consist in: wound dehiscence, hematomas, seromas, lymphoceles and lymphedema. Cancer statistics, CA Cancer J Clin ; 2.

CA Cancer J Clin ; International Agency for Research on Cancer. Cancer incidence in five continents. Springer Philadelphia: Lippincott Raven; Malignant tumors of the anal canal: the spectrum of disease, treatment, and outcomes.

Cancer ; 85 8 — 7. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the anus. Tech Coloproctol ; Anal cancer incidence: genital warts, anal fissure or fistula, hemorrhoids, and smoking.

J Natl Cancer Inst ; Sexual practices, sexually transmitted diseases, and the incidence of anal cancer. N Engl J Med Sexually transmitted infection as a cause of anal cancer. Declety G - Cancer de canal anal in Les cancers digestifs. Springer, Detection of human papillomavirus DNA in hpv virus and rectal cancer intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer.

Vă rugăm să introduceți o adresă de e-mail corectă Vă mulțumim pentru abonare! Găsiți un doctor Anadolu Diagnosticarea precoce a cancerului este importanta pentru salvarea vieţii Cancerul este una dintre cele mai grave probleme de sănătate în zilele noastre. În țările dezvoltate, în tratarea cancerului, folosirea de tehnologii inovatoare și proceduri medicale, împreună cu diagnosticarea precoce, ajută la creșterea rezultatelor pozitive cu procente. Necdet Üskent, descrie metodele de control de securitate care joacă rolul cel mai important în diagnosticarea precoce a cancerului. Cancerul este a doua cauza de deces la nivel mondial.

Cancer Res Am J Epidemiol. Tobacco smoking as a risk hpv virus and rectal cancer in anal carcinoma: an antiestrogenic mechanism? Mullerat J, Northover J.

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Human papilloma virus and anal neoplastic lesions in the immunocompromised Transplant patient. Semin Colon Rectal Surg ; Results of definitive irradiation in a series of epidermoid carcinomas of the anal canal.

Management of inguinal lymph node metastases in patients with carcinoma of the anal canal: experience in a series hpv virus and rectal cancer patients treated in Lyon and review of the literature. Cancer ; Epidermoid anal cancer: results from the UKCCCR randomised trial of radiotherapy alone versus radiotherapy, 5-fluorouracil, and mitomycin.

Prevenirea cancerului prin intermediul unor programe de screening

Lancet ; Anal carcinoma: histology, staging, epidemiology, treatment. Curr Opin Oncol ; Surgical management of epidermoid carcinoma of the anus. Am J Surg. Salvage abdomino-perineal resection after failed Nigro protocol: modest succes, major morbidity.

Colorectal Dis. Salvage abdominoperineal resection following combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy for epidermoid carcinoma of the anus.

Diagnosticarea precoce a cancerului este importanta pentru salvarea vieţii

Ann Surg Oncol ; 1: Results of surgical salvage after failed chemoradiation therapy for epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal.

Ann Surg Oncol. Malignant tumors of the anal canal: the spectrum of disease, treatment and outcomes. Appraisal of the treatment of carcinoma of the anus and anal canal.

Cancerul de canal anal - aspecte legate de diagnostic și tratament

Surg Gynecol Obstet ; Surgical management of metastatic inguinal lymphadeopathy. Recurrent bacterii transmise pe cale sexuala cancer of the anus. Cancer ; Basal cell carcinoma of the perianal region. Dis Colon Rectum ; Cummings BJ. Oncology ; Does an erroneous diagnosis of squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal and anal margin at first physician visit influence prognosis?

hpv virus and rectal cancer

Metastases to the lymph nodes in epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal studied by a clearing technique.